India, which is known as Bharat in Hindi the language of the country, is one of the countries of the continent of Asia, and is situated in the southern part of the continent. The official name of the country is the Republic of India. With respect to the level of population, the country ranks second among all the countries of the world, and with respect to the geographical area, the country ranks seventh. Because of the size of its electorate, the country is referred to as the largest democracy of the world. The country is surrounded by the Indian Ocean, the Arabian Sea, and the Bay of Bengal, in the south, the west, and the east respectively. The coast line of India has a length of four thousand six hundred and seventy one miles. India shares a border with Pakistan in the west, in the north east with Bhutan, Nepal, and China, and in the east with Burma and Bangladesh. The countries located near to India are Indonesia, the Maldives, and Sri Lanka. The Indian Ocean is also situated nearby.

The Indus Valley had its home in the Indian Subcontinent, which has a number of huge empires and historical trade routes. Throughout the history of the Indian subcontinent, the region has been known for its cultural and commercial prosperity. There are four major religions of the world which were originated in the country, and they are Jainism, Hinduism, Sikhism, and Buddhism. Other religions which arrived in the region were Judaism, Islam, Zoroastrianism, and Christianity. All these religions played a major part in affecting the highly diverse culture of the region. From the starting of the eighteenth century, India started to get annexed by the British East India Company. The country began to be colonized by the United Kingdom from the middle of the nineteenth century. It was in the year 1947 when India gained independence and became a modern nation state.