The official name of Bulgaria, which is called Balgariya in Bulgarian, is the Republic of Bulgaria. This when translated into Bulgarian comes to Republika Bulgariya. It is surrounded by five countries which are Serbia and the Republic of Macedonia, Romania, and Greece and Turkey on the west, north, and south respectively. It is a very old state of Europe and is located in the south eastern part of Europe. The Black Sea is located due east of the country and defines its extent in that direction. There are three regions which are included in Bulgaria, and they are Macedonia, Thrace, and Moesia. Bulgaria covers and area of around 110910 square kilometers and is home to more than seven million people. The largest city of the country is Sofia, which is also the capital. Bulgaria became a member of the European Union in the year 2007 and a member of NATO in the year 2004.

The landscape is very diverse in the region. The terrain is dotted with:

  • the snow capped peaks of the Alps in the alpine regions of Pirin and Rila, and the Balkan Mountains
  • the coast of the Black Sea which is mild and sunny
  • the Danubial Plain which is situated in the north and ahs a continental climate
  • the lowlands in the extreme south of Thrace and the valleys in Macedonia, both of which have a Mediterranean climate.

The climate of Bulgaria is classified as being a temperate climate. The summers are dry and very hot, while the winters are damp and cool. The climate is influenced to a large extent by the Mediterranean along the coast of the Black Sea, as well as by the Balkan Mountains. Compared to the southern areas of Bulgaria, the northern areas get more rain and are a little cooler. The average precipitation of Bulgaria is 630 millimeters annually.