Sofia, which is a city situated in the Republic of Bulgaria, is the capital of Bulgaria as well as the largest city of the country. It covers and area of around five hundred and twenty square miles and is home to 1344605 people. The city is located at the bottom of the huge Vitosha Mountain in the west of Bulgaria and in the Sofia Valley, and is the hub of education, culture, economy, and administration in the country.

The main reason why Sofia has developed into a major settlement is its position in the Balkans. Mountains surround the valley from all sides and the valley has an area of four hundred and fifty seven square miles and an altitude of five hundred and fifty meters which makes it the largest valley in the country. Three different passes can be taken to enter the city, and they also link the Aegean and the Black Seas with Central Europe and the Adriatic Sea.

There are numerous rivers which pass through the city, such as the River Perlovska and the River Vladaiska. The upper course of the River Iskar passes through the east of Sofia as well. One of the features which make the city well known is the number of thermal and mineral springs which are present in the city.

The climate of Sofia can be classified as being a moderate continental climate, with temperatures being high overall. The month with the highest temperature is August, and the month with the lowest temperature is January. The level of precipitation which the city gets annually is six hundred and fifty millimeters, with rainfall being high in the summers and low in the winters. Compared to other areas of Bulgaria, the weather in Sofia in summer is less hot. The reason for this difference is the high elevation in which the valley is situated.